Vitreoretinal Surgery Reading List

Below is a select list of suggested vitreoretinal surgery literature for residents and fellows in training. The list includes primary literature related to vitreoretinal surgery principles and techniques and is intended to supplement textbook chapters, the Vit Buckle Academy curriculum, and other educational resources.

Retinal Detachment

Adelman RA, Parnes AJ, Ducournau D; European Vitreo-Retinal Society (EVRS) Retinal Detachment Study Group. Strategy for the management of uncomplicated retinal detachments: the European Vitreo-Retinal Society Retinal Detachment Study report 1. Ophthalmology 2013; 120(9):1804-1808.

Adelman RA, Parnes AJ, Michalewska Z, et al; European Vitreo-Retinal Society (EVRS) Retinal Detachment Study Group. Clinical variables associated with failure of retinal detachment repair: the European Vitreo-Retinal Society Retinal Detachment Study report number 4. Ophthalmology 2014;121(9):1715-1719.

Adelman RA, Parnes AJ, Sipperley JO, et al; European Vitreo-Retinal Society (EVRS) Retinal Detachment Study Group. Strategy for the management of complex retinal detachments: the European Vitreo-Retinal Society Retinal Detachment Study report 2. Ophthalmology 2013; 120(9):1809-1813.

Ahmadieh H, Moradian S, Faghihi H, et al; Pseudophakic and Aphakic Retinal Detachment (PARD) Study Group. Anatomic and visual outcomes of scleral buckling versus primary vitrectomy in pseudophakic and aphakic retinal detachment: six-month follow-up results of a single operation—report no. 1. Ophthalmology 2005;112(8):1421-1429.

Arya AV, Emerson JW, Englebert M, et al. Surgical management of pseudophakic retinal detachments: a meta-analysis. Ophthalmology 2006;113:1724-1733.

Brazitikos PD, Androudi S, Christen WG, et al. Primary pars plana vitrectomy versus scleral buckle surgery for the treatment of pseudophakic retinal detachment: a randomized clinical trial. Retina 2005;25:957-964.

Byer NE. Long-term natural history of lattice degeneration of the retina. Ophthalmology 1989; 96(9):1396-1401.

Byer NE. Natural history of posterior vitreous detachment with early management as the premier line of defense against retinal detachment. Ophthalmology 1994;101(9):1503-151.

Byer NE. Changes in and prognosis of lattice degeneration of the retina. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 1974;78:OP114-OP125.

D’Amico, DJ. Primary retinal detachment. New England Journal of Medicine 2008;359:2346-2354.

Fabian ID, Kinori M, Efrati M, et al. Pneumatic retinopexy for the repair of primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: a 10-year retrospective analysis. JAMA Ophthalmol 2013; 131(2):166-171.

Foos RY, Wheeler NC. Vitreoretinal juncture: synchisis senilis and posterior vitreous detachment. Ophthalmology 1982;89:1502-1512.

Fujii GY, De Juan E Jr, Humayun MS, et al. Initial experience using the transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy system for vitreoretinal surgery. Ophthalmology 2002;109:1814-1820.

Glaser BM, Cardin A, Biscoe B. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy: the mechanism of development of vitreoretinal traction. Ophthalmology 1987;94(4): 327-332.

Heimann H, Bartz-Schmidt KU, Bornfeld N, et al. Scleral buckling versus primary vitrectomy in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: a prospective randomized multicenter clinical study. Ophthalmology 2007;114:2142-2154.

Heussen N, Feltgen N, Walter P, et al; SPR Study Group. Scleral buckling versus primary vitrectomy in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment study (SPR Study), predictive factors for functional outcome: study report no. 6. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2011;249(8):1129-1136.

Heussen N, Hilgers RD, Heimann H, et al; SPR study group. Scleral buckling versus primary vitrectomy in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment study (SPR study), multiple-event analysis of risk factors for reoperations: SPR Study report no 4. Acta Ophthalmol 2011; 89(7):622-628.

Hilton GF, Grizzard WS. Pneumatic retinopexy: a two-step outpatient operation without conjunctival incision. Ophthalmology 1986;93:626–641.

Lincoff H, Gieser R. Finding the retinal hole. Arch Ophthalmol 1971;85(5):565-569.

Lincoff H, Mardirossian J, Lincoff A, et al. Intravitreal longevity of three perfluorocarbon gases. Arch Ophthalmol 1980;98:1610-1611.

Machemer R, Buettner H, Norton EW, et al. Vitrectomy: a pars plana approach. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 1971;75:813.

Machemer R, Aaberg TM, Freeman HM, et al. An updated classification of retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 1991; 112(2):159-165.

Ryan EH Jr, Mittra RA. Scleral buckling vs. vitrectomy: the continued role for scleral buckling in the vitrectomy era. Arch Ophthalmol 2010;128:1202–1205.

Tasman WS. Posterior vitreous detachment and peripheral retinal breaks. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 1968;72:217-224.

Tornambe PE. Pneumatic retinopexy: the evolution of case selection and surgical technique: a twelve-year study of 302 eyes. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 1997;95:551-578.

Tornambe PE, Hilton GF, Brinton DA, et al. Pneumatic retinopexy: a two-year follow-up study of the multicenter clinical trial comparing pneumatic retinopexy with scleral buckling. Ophthalmology 1991;98:1115-1123.

van Overdam KA, Bettink-Remeijer MW, Klaver CC, et al. Symptoms and findings predictive for the development of new retinal breaks. Arch Ophthalmol 2005; 123(4): 479-484.

Weichel ED, Martidis A, Fineman MS, et al. Pars plana vitrectomy versus combined pars plana vitrectomy-scleral buckle for primary repair of pseudophakic retinal detachment. Ophthalmology 2006;113:2033-2040

Wilkinson CP. Evidence-based analysis of prophylactic treatment of asymptomatic retinal breaks and lattice degeneration. Ophthalmology 2000;107(1):12-15.

Williams KM, Dogramaci M, Williamson TH. Retrospective study of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments secondary to round retinal holes. Eur J Ophthalmol 2012;22:635–640.

Yoon YH, Marmor MF. Rapid enhancement of retinal adhesion by laser photocoagulation.  Ophthalmology 1988;95(10):1385-1388.

Vitreomacular Traction/Macular Hole

Da Mata AP, Burk SE, Foster RE, et al. Long-term follow-up of indocyanine green-assisted peeling of the retinal internal limiting membrane during vitrectomy surgery for idiopathic macular hole repair. Ophthalmology 2004;111:2246–2253

de Smet MD, Gandorfer A, Stalmans P, et al. Microplasmin intravitreal administration in patients with vitreomacular traction scheduled for vitrectomy: the MIVI I trial. Ophthalmology 2009;116:1349–1355,1355.e1–e2.

Duker JS, Kaiser PK, Binder S, et al. The International Vitreomacular Traction Study Group classification of vitreomacular adhesion, traction, and macular hole. Ophthalmology 2013; 120(12):2611-2619.

Eye Disease Case-Control Study Group. Risk factors for idiopathic macular holes. Am J Ophthalmol 1994;118(6):754-761

Ezra E. Idiopathic full thickness macular hole: natural history and pathogenesis. Br J Ophthalmol 2001;85(1):102-108.

Freeman WR, Azen SP, Kim JW, et al. Vitrectomy for the treatment of full-thickness stage 3 or 4 macular holes. Results of a multicentered randomized clinical trial. Vitrectomy for Treatment of Macular Hole Study Group. Archives of Ophthalmology 1997;115(7):11–21

Gass JD. Idiopathic senile macular hole: its early stages and pathogenesis. Arch Ophthalmol 1988;106(5):629-639.

Gass JD. Reappraisal of biomicroscopic classification of stages of development of a macular hole. Am J Ophthalmol 1995;119(6):752-759.

Gaudric A, Haouchine B, Massin P, et al. Macular hole formation: new data provided by optical coherence tomography. Arch Ophthalmol 1999;117(6):744-751.

Hee MR, Puliafito CA, Wong C, et al. Optical coherence tomography of macular holes. Ophthalmology 1995;102:748–756.

Johnson MW. Improvements in the understanding and treatment of macular hole. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2002;13(3):152-160.

Johnson MW. Posterior vitreous detachment: evolution and complications of its early stages. Am J Ophthalmol 2010;149(3):371-382.

Kelly NE, Wendel RT. Vitreous surgery for idiopathic macular holes: results of a pilot study. Arch Ophthalmol 1991;109(5):654-659.

Kim JW, Freeman WR, Azen SP, et al. Prospective randomized trial of vitrectomy or observation for stage 2 macular holes. Vitrectomy for Macular Hole Study Group. American Journal of Ophthalmology 1996;121(6):605–14.

Kim JW, Freeman WR, el-Haig W, et al. Baseline characteristics, natural history, and risk factors to progression in eyes with stage 2 macular holes. Results from a prospective randomized clinical trial. Vitrectomy for Macular Hole Study Group. Ophthalmology 1995;102(12):1818–28.

Kwok AK, Lai TY, Man-Chan W, Woo DC. Indocyanine green assisted retinal internal limiting membrane removal in stage 3 and 4 macular hole surgery. Br J Ophthalmol 2003;87(1): 71-74.

Michalewska Z, Michalewski J, Adelman RA, et al. Inverted internal limiting membrane flap technique for large macular holes. Ophthalmology 2010;117:2018–2025.

Olenik A, Rios J, Mateo C. Inverted internal limiting membrane flap technique for macular holes in high myopia with axial length >30 mm. Retina 2016;36(9):1688-1693.

Park DW, Sipperley JO, Sneed SR, et al. Macular hole surgery with internal-limiting membrane peeling and intravitreous air. Ophthalmology 1999;106:1392–1397, discussion 1397–1398.

Singh RP, Li A, Bedi R, et al. Anatomical and visual outcomes following ocriplasmin treatment for symptomatic vitreomacular traction syndrome. Br J Ophthalmol 2014; 98(3): 356-360.

Smiddy WE, Flynn HW Jr. Pathogenesis of macular holes and therapeutic implications. Am J Ophthalmol 2004;137(3):525-537.

Solebo AL, Lange CA, Bunce C, et al. Facedown positioning or posturing after macular hole surgery. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011:12:CD008228.

Spiteri Cornish K, Lois N, Scott N, et al. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling versus vitrectomy with no peeling for idiopathic full-thickness macular hole (FTMH). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;6:CD009306.

Stalmans P, Delaey C, de Smet MD, et al. Intravitreal injection of microplasmin for treatment of vitreomacular adhesion: results of a prospective, randomized, sham-controlled phase II trial (the MIVI-IIT trial). Retina 2010;30:1122–1127.

Stalmans P, Benz MS, Gandorfer A, et al; MIVI-TRUST Study Group. Enzymatic vitrolysis with ocriplasmin for vitreomacular traction and macular holes. N Engl J Med 2012; 367(7): 606-615.

Stalmans P, Benz MS, Gandorfer A, et al; Group M-TS. Enzymatic vitreolysis with ocriplasmin for vitreomacular traction and macular holes. N Engl J Med 2012;367:606–615

Thompson JT, Smiddy WE, Glaser BM, et al. Intraocular tamponade duration and success of macular hole surgery. Retina 1996;16(5):373–382.

Wendel RT, Patel AC, Kelly NE, et al. Vitreous surgery for macular holes. Ophthalmology 1993;100:1671–1676.

Epiretinal Membrane

Fraser-Bell S, Guzowski M, Rochtchina E, et al. Five-year cumulative incidence and progression of epiretinal membranes: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology 2003; 110:34–40.

Fujii GY, De Juan E Jr, Humayun MS, et al: Initial experience using the transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy system for vitreoretinal surgery. Ophthalmology 2002;109:1814–1820. Haritoglou C, Gandorfer A, Gass CA, et al. The effect of indocyanine-green on functional outcome of macular pucker surgery. Am J Ophthalmol 2003;135:328-37.

Inoue M, Morita S, Watanabe Y, et al. Preoperative inner segment/outer segment junction in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography as a prognostic factor in epiretinal membrane surgery. Retina 2011;31:1366–1372

Klein R, Klein BE, Wang Q, et al. The epidemiology of epiretinal membranes. Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society 1994;92:403–25.

Kwok AK, Lai TY, Li WW, et al. Indocyanine green–assisted internal limiting membrane removal in epiretinal membrane surgery: a clinical and histologic study. Am J Ophthalmol 2004;138:194-9. Margherio RR, Cox MS Jr, Trese MT, et al. Removal of epimacular membranes. Ophthalmology 1985;92:1075-83.

McCarty DJ, Mukesh BN, Chikani V, et al. Prevalence and associations of epiretinal membranes in the visual impairment project. Am J Ophthalmol 2005; 140:288–294.

McDonald HR, Verre WP, Aaberg TM. Surgical management of idiopathic epiretinal membranes. Ophthalmology 1986; 93:978-83.

Mitchell P, Smith W, Chey T, et al. Prevalence and associations of epiretinal membranes. The Blue Mountains Eye Study, Australia. Ophthalmology 1997;104:1033–1040.

Park DW, Dugel PU, Garda J, et al. Macular pucker removal with and without internal limiting membrane peeling: pilot study. Ophthalmology 2003; 110(1): 62-64.

Pesin SR, Olk RJ, Grand MG, et al. Vitrectomy for premacular fibroplasia. Prognostic factors, long-term follow-up, and time course of visual improvement. Ophthalmology 1991;98: 1109-1114.

Rice TA, De Bustros S, Michels RG, et al. Prognostic factors in vitrectomy for epiretinal membranes of the macula. Ophthalmology 1986;93:602–610.

Rizzo S, Genovesi-Ebert F, Murri S, et al. 25-gauge, sutureless vitrectomy and standard 20-gauge pars plana vitrectomy in idiopathic epiretinal membrane surgery: a comparative pilot study. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2006;244:472–479.

Shimozono M, Oishi A, Hata M, et al. The significance of cone outer segment tips as a prognostic factor in epiretinal membrane surgery. Am J Ophthalmol 2012;153:698–704.

Diabetic Retinopathy

Arevalo JF, Sanchez JG, Saldarriaga L, et al. Retinal detachment after bevacizumab. Ophthalmology 2011;118:2304.e3– e7.

Chaudhry NA, Lim ES, Saito Y, et al: Early vitrectomy and endolaser photocoagulation in patients with type I diabetes with severe vitreous hemorrhage. Ophthalmology 1995;102:1164–1169.

Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study Research Group. Early vitrectomy for severe vitreous hemorrhage in diabetic retinopathy, two-year results of a randomized trial: Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study report 2. Arch Ophthalmol 1985;103(11):1644-1652.

Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study Research Group. Early vitrectomy for severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy in eyes with useful vision: clinical application of results of a randomized trial—Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study report 4. Ophthalmology 1988; 95(10):1321-1334.

Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study Research Group. Early vitrectomy for severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy in eyes with useful vision: results of a randomized trial—Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study report 3. Ophthalmology 1988;95(10):1307-1320.

Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study Research Group. Early vitrectomy for severe vitreous hemorrhage in diabetic retinopathy, four-year results of a randomized trial: Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study report 5. Arch Ophthalmol 1990;108(7):958-964.

Haller JA, Qin H, Apte RS, et al. Vitrectomy outcomes in eyes with diabetic macular edema and vitreomacular traction. Ophthalmology 2010;117:1087-93.e1083.

Harbour JW, Smiddy WE, Flynn HW Jr, et al. Vitrectomy for diabetic macular edema associated with a thickened and taut posterior hyaloid membrane. Am J Ophthalmol 1996;121: 405-1043.

Kaiser PK, Riemann CD, Sears JE, et al. Macular traction detachment and diabetic macular edema associated with posterior hyaloidal traction. Am J Ophthalmol 2001;131:44-49.

Lewis H, Abrams GW, Blumenkranz MS, et al. Vitrectomy for diabetic macular traction and edema associated with posterior hyaloidal traction. Ophthalmology 1992;99:753-759.

Michels RG, Rice TA, Rice EF. Vitrectomy for diabetic vitreous hemorrhage. Am J Ophthalmol 1983;95:12– 21.

Nasrallah FP, Jalkh AE, Van Coppenolle F, et al. The role of the vitreous in diabetic macular edema. Ophthalmology 1988;95: 1335-1339.

Oshima Y, Shima C, Wakabayashi T, et al. Microincision vitrectomy surgery and intravitreal bevacizumab as a surgical adjunct to treat diabetic traction retinal detachment. Ophthalmology 2009; 116:927–938.

Recchia FM, Ruby AJ, Carvalho Recchia CA. Pars plana vitrectomy with removal of the internal limiting membrane in the treatment of persistent diabetic macular edema. Am J Ophthalmol 2005;139:447-454.

Rice TA, Michels RG, Rice EF.Vitrectomy for diabetic traction retinal detachment involving the macula. Am J Ophthalmol 1983;95:22–33.

Rizzo S, Genovesi-Ebert F, Di Bartolo E, et al. Injection of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) as a preoperative adjunct before vitrectomy surgery in the treatment of severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2008;246:837–842.

Thompson JT, de Bustros S, Michels RG, et al. Results and prognostic factors in vitrectomy for diabetic traction rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Arch Ophthalmol 1987;105:503–507.

Yeoh J, Williams C, Allen P, et al. Avastin as an adjunct to vitrectomy in the management of severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy: a prospective case series. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2008;36:449–454.